# What is the difference between i = i + 1 and i += 1 in a 'for' loop?

I found out a curious thing today and was wondering if somebody could shed some light into what the difference is here?

```
import numpy as np
A = np.arange(12).reshape(4,3)
for a in A:
a = a + 1
B = np.arange(12).reshape(4,3)
for b in B:
b += 1
```

After running each `for`

loop, `A`

has not changed, but `B`

has had one added to each element. I actually use the `B`

version to write to a initialized NumPy array within a `for`

loop.

The difference is that one modifies the data-structure itself (in-place operation) `b += 1`

while the other just *reassigns* the variable `a = a + 1`

.

Just for completeness:

`x += y`

is **not always** doing an in-place operation, there are (at least) three exceptions:

If

`x`

**doesn't implement**an`__iadd__`

method then the`x += y`

statement is just a shorthand for`x = x + y`

. This would be the case if`x`

was something like an`int`

.If

`__iadd__`

returns`NotImplemented`

, Python falls back to`x = x + y`

.The

`__iadd__`

method could theoretically be implemented to not work in place. It'd be really weird to do that, though.

As it happens your `b`

s are `numpy.ndarray`

s which implements `__iadd__`

and return itself so your second loop modifies the original array in-place.

You can read more on this in the Python documentation of "Emulating Numeric Types".

These [

`__i*__`

] methods are called to implement the augmented arithmetic assignments (`+=`

,`-=`

,`*=`

,`@=`

,`/=`

,`//=`

,`%=`

,`**=`

,`<<=`

,`>>=`

,`&=`

,`^=`

,`|=`

). These methods should attempt to do the operation in-place (modifying self) and return the result (which could be, but does not have to be, self). If a specific method is not defined, the augmented assignment falls back to the normal methods. For instance, if x is an instance of a class with an`__iadd__()`

method,`x += y`

is equivalent to`x = x.__iadd__(y)`

. Otherwise,`x.__add__(y)`

and`y.__radd__(x)`

are considered, as with the evaluation of`x + y`

. In certain situations, augmented assignment can result in unexpected errors (see Why does`a_tuple[i] += ["item"]`

raise an exception when the addition works?), but this behavior is in fact part of the data model.From: stackoverflow.com/q/41446833

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