u'\ufeff' in Python string
I get an error with the following patter:
UnicodeEncodeError: 'ascii' codec can't encode character u'\ufeff' in position 155: ordinal not in range(128)
Not sure what
u'\ufeff' is, it shows up when I'm web scraping. How can I remedy the situation? The
.replace() string method doesn't work on it.
The Unicode character
U+FEFF is the byte order mark, or BOM, and is used to tell the difference between big- and little-endian UTF-16 encoding. If you decode the web page using the right codec, Python will remove it for you. Examples:
#!python2 #coding: utf8 u = u'ABC' e8 = u.encode('utf-8') # encode without BOM e8s = u.encode('utf-8-sig') # encode with BOM e16 = u.encode('utf-16') # encode with BOM e16le = u.encode('utf-16le') # encode without BOM e16be = u.encode('utf-16be') # encode without BOM print 'utf-8 %r' % e8 print 'utf-8-sig %r' % e8s print 'utf-16 %r' % e16 print 'utf-16le %r' % e16le print 'utf-16be %r' % e16be print print 'utf-8 w/ BOM decoded with utf-8 %r' % e8s.decode('utf-8') print 'utf-8 w/ BOM decoded with utf-8-sig %r' % e8s.decode('utf-8-sig') print 'utf-16 w/ BOM decoded with utf-16 %r' % e16.decode('utf-16') print 'utf-16 w/ BOM decoded with utf-16le %r' % e16.decode('utf-16le')
EF BB BF is a UTF-8-encoded BOM. It is not required for UTF-8, but serves only as a signature (usually on Windows).
utf-8 'ABC' utf-8-sig '\xef\xbb\xbfABC' utf-16 '\xff\xfeA\x00B\x00C\x00' # Adds BOM and encodes using native processor endian-ness. utf-16le 'A\x00B\x00C\x00' utf-16be '\x00A\x00B\x00C' utf-8 w/ BOM decoded with utf-8 u'\ufeffABC' # doesn't remove BOM if present. utf-8 w/ BOM decoded with utf-8-sig u'ABC' # removes BOM if present. utf-16 w/ BOM decoded with utf-16 u'ABC' # *requires* BOM to be present. utf-16 w/ BOM decoded with utf-16le u'\ufeffABC' # doesn't remove BOM if present.
Note that the
utf-16 codec requires BOM to be present, or Python won't know if the data is big- or little-endian.
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