Assigning a value to single underscore _ in Python/IPython interpreter
I created this function in Python 2.7 with
def _(v): return v
later if I call
_(somevalue), I get
_ = somevalue.
in: _(3) out: 3 in: print _ out: 3
The function has disappeared! If I call
_(4) I get:
TypeError: 'int' object is not callable`
Why? What's wrong with this function?
The Python interpreter assigns the last expression value to
This behaviour is limited to the REPL interpreter only, and is intended to assist in interactive coding sessions:
>>> import math >>> math.pow(3.0, 5) 243.0 >>> result = _ >>> result 243.0
The standard Python interpreter goes to some length to not trample on user-defined values though; if you yourself assign something else to
_ then the interpreter will not overwrite that (technically speaking, the
_ variable is a
__builtin__ attribute, your own assignments are 'regular' globals). You are not using the standard Python interpreter though; you are using IPython, and that interpreter is not that careful.
IPython documents this behaviour explicitly:
The following GLOBAL variables always exist (so don’t overwrite them!):
[_](a single underscore) : stores previous output, like Python’s default interpreter.
In the standard Python REPL environment, if you assigned something to
_ you can still access the last expression result via
__builtins__._ or by deleting the
_ global that shadows it again (
Outside of the Python interpreter,
_ is by convention used as the name of the translatable text function (see the
gettext module; external tools look for that function to extract translatable strings).
And, also by convention, using
_ as an assignment target tells readers of your code that you are going to ignore that value; e.g.
[random.random() for _ in range(5)] to generate a list of 5 random float values, or
foo, bar, _ = three_values to signal a 3rd value from a tuple assignment will not be used. When
_ is already used for a
__ can be used for the same purposes.
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